Radiocarbon dating of bone apatite by step heating Best sex hook up chatline
To know the temperatures at which a bone was subjected is a great index to better understand the modifications suffered by bone structures due to combustion  to promote the differentiation between natural and anthropogenic phenomena and to better interpret the techniques used in the resolution of forensic cases where cremation or other fire damage to remains is present [2–6].
This occurs because the formation of the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) phase, otherwise known as whitlockite, clearly ascertained by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns collected on the same powdered specimens investigated by ATR-IR.
These results point to the need of combining more than one physicochemical technique even if apparently well suitable, in order to verify whether the assumed conditions assessed by spectroscopy are fully maintained in the specimens after temperature and/or mechanical processing.
The study of burned human remains is of considerable importance in archaeology, forensic anthropology, and crime scene investigations.
FT-IR spectroscopy has the potential for being portable into the field, requires a very small amount of sample, can be cheaper to use, and has been shown to be more accurate at lower burning temperatures [16, 26, 27].
In particular, the methodology of KBr FT-IR, for the sample preparation, involves laborious dilution in a transparent means while with FT-IR ATR (attenuated total reflectance) the infrared beam impinges directly a large area of the sample , maximizing the reproducibility of the signals regardless the protocols followed by the operator.
Each spectrum was obtained by averaging 256 interferograms.